Chemopreventive properties of a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in colon carcinogenesis, administered alone or in combination with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor

Chinthalapally V Rao, Cooma Indranie, Barbara Simi, Pamela T Manning, Jane R Connor, Bandaru S Reddy
Cancer Research 2002 January 1, 62 (1): 165-70
The inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) are overexpressed in colonic tumors of humans, as well as in colon tumors that develop in rats after the administration of the colon-specific carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM). iNOS may regulate COX-2 production of proinflammatory prostaglandins, which are known to play a key role in colon tumor development. Experiments were designed to assess the potential chemopreventive properties of highly selective iNOS inhibitors, administered individually and in combination with a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on the development of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). F344 rats were fed experimental diets containing one of the following: 0, 10, 30, or 100 parts/million (ppm) of the selective iNOS inhibitor L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine tetrazole-amide (SC-51); 1800 ppm of the less potent, selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG); 500 ppm of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib; 320 ppm of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory sulindac (positive control); or 30 ppm of SC-51 with 500 ppm of celecoxib, and 100 ppm of SC-51 with 500 ppm of celecoxib. One and 2 weeks later, rats received s.c. injections of AOM at a dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight. At 17 weeks of age, all rats were sacrificed. Colons were evaluated for ACF, and colonic mucosae were assayed for COX and NOS isoform enzyme activities. Samples of venous blood, collected at various time points, were analyzed for these agents. SC-51, administered alone, demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of the incidence of colonic ACF. The highest doses of SC-51 (100 ppm) and AG (1800 ppm) significantly suppressed the incidence of colonic ACF (P < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively) and crypt multiplicity in terms of numbers of aberrant crypts/focus (P < 0.0001). Importantly, the combination of either low or high effective doses of SC-51 (30 or 100 ppm) and celecoxib (500 ppm) suppressed AOM-induced colonic ACF formation (P < 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively) and reduced multiplicity of four or more aberrant crypts/focus (P < 0.0001) to a greater extent than did these agents administered individually. As expected, sulindac inhibited colonic ACF formation (P < 0.001) and reduced the multiplicity of four or more aberrant crypts (P < 0.0001) to approximately 45%. The enzymatic activities of COX-2 and iNOS were significantly induced in the AOM-treated animals, and administration of the iNOS inhibitors, SC-51 and AG, significantly inhibited the activities of both iNOS and COX-2 in the colonic mucosa. The combined administration of SC-51 and celecoxib inhibited the COX-2 activity to a greater extent than did either of these agents administered alone. These findings support the hypothesis that selective iNOS inhibitors may have chemopreventive properties and that coadministration with a selective COX-2 inhibitor may have additional chemopreventive potential.

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