Renovascular hypertension in children

R Estepa, N Gallego, L Orte, E Puras, E Aracil, J Ortuño
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 2001, 35 (5): 388-92

OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology, clinical spectrum. image findings, management and outcome of children with renovascular hypertension (RVH).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty children (aged 5 days to 15 years) were studied and treated for RVH during 1977-1998. In 14 cases hypertension was found during a routine examination. Six cases had heart failure and/or hypertensive encephalopathy. Diagnosis was made with aortography. Post-captopril renography and Doppler ultrasonography were obtained in 8 patients and spiral computed tomography angiography in 2. Treatment consisted of surgery (8 patients), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (5) or antihypertensive drugs only (8).

RESULTS: Initial blood pressure was 62 +/- 31 mmHg > 95th percentile for systolic and 44 +/- 22 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. Twelve children had unilateral and 8 had bilateral arterial stenosis. In 3 cases lesions were intrarenal. RVH was due to fibromuscular dysplasia (7 patients) and associated to middle aortic syndrome (5). neurofibromatosis (3), William's syndrome (2). Takayasu's arteritis (1) and pheochromocytoma (1). Treatment of choice was decided depending on the size of the child and location and severity of the stenosis. At the end of the follow-up (78 +/- 49 months), 9 patients are normotensive without medication and 7 are normotensive with drugs. Three patients have died, 2 for unrelated causes and I for cardiac failure; 1 child was lost to the follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Although symptoms are relatively uncommon. renovascular disease is a frequent cause of severe hypertension in childhood. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques appear useful as screening methods. Treatment by surgery or PTA is successful if patients are carefully selected.

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