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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Myocardial infarction in young adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels < or = 100 mg/dL: clinical profile and 1-year outcomes

K O Akosah, R M Cerniglia, P Havlik, A Schaper
Chest 2001, 120 (6): 1953-8
11742927

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To define the clinical profile of young adults with optimal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels who present with acute myocardial infarctions (MIs); to compare and contrast differences in the clinical profiles of young adults admitted to the hospital with MIs who have LDL cholesterol levels < or = 100 mg/dL and those with LDL cholesterol values > or = 160 mg/dL; and to evaluate the clinical outcomes for the two groups at 1 year.

DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was conducted on all young men (55 years) and women (65 years) admitted to the hospital for MIs within a 2-year period (n = 232). A history of cardiovascular risk factors and 1-year outcomes were obtained.

SETTING: Rural community medical center serving a tri-state area in the midwestern United States.

PATIENTS: Patients were included in this analysis if (1) a lipid profile was drawn within 24 h of hospital admission and (2) the patient was not receiving a statin medication on hospital admission.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Of the 183 patients who met the inclusion criteria, as many as 68% (124 patients) had LDL cholesterol levels of < or = 130 mg/dL, 29% (53 patients) had LDL cholesterol level of < or = 100 mg/dL, and only 14% (26 patients) had LDL cholesterol levels of > or = 160 mg/dL. Patients were categorized into group 1 if their LDL cholesterol level was < or = 100 mg/dL and were categorized into group 2 if their LDL cholesterol level was > or = 160 mg/dL. In group 2, 92% of patients were placed on a statin medication. By 1 year, the mean LDL cholesterol level had decreased from 188 to 106 mg/dL. The rate of coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention procedures was similar between groups. Hospital readmission rates (43.4% vs 50%, respectively) and 1-year mortality rates (9% vs 8%, respectively) were not different between groups group 1 and 2.

CONCLUSIONS: Young adults experiencing acute MIs typically have acceptable cholesterol levels (ie, < or = 130 mg/dL) or optimal values (ie, < or = 100 mg/dL). In those patients with abnormal cholesterol levels, a combined strategy of aggressive intervention and adherence to secondary prevention protocols including lipid control is successful in improving outcomes.

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