JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Ligation-anopexy for treatment of advanced hemorrhoidal disease.

PURPOSE: Destruction of the anchoring tissue system is considered to be the essential prerequisite to the pathogenesis of advanced hemorrhoidal disease. Ligation-anopexy was designed to 1) restore fixation of the hemorrhoidal cushions to the underlying internal sphincter, 2) reduce hemorrhoidal prolapse, and 3) minimize the hemorrhoidal blood flow. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ligation-anopexy as a new technique for the treatment of advanced stages of hemorrhoidal disease.

METHODS: This study included 40 patients with hemorrhoidal disease (mean age 29.63 +/- 9.79 years, male/female ratio 34:6). Twenty-two patients had third-degree and 18 patients had fourth-degree hemorrhoids; of those with fourth-degree hemorrhoids, two patients had associated anal fissure and three patients had partial mucosal prolapse. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. After reduction of hemorrhoidal prolapse and under general or spinal anesthesia, a needle with 2-0 polyglactin (Vicryl) was inserted 1.5 cm above the dentate line using a Sims' speculum. The needle was inserted deep enough to fix the mucosa and the submucosa to the underlying internal sphincter. After the suture was tied, the redundant mucosa was pulled distally to be incorporated in the ligature, and the thread was relegated around it to form a mucosal tag.

RESULTS: Inclusion of a part of the internal sphincter with ligation of the redundant mucosa ensures adequate retraction of prolapsed hemorrhoids (hemorrhoid lift). Postoperative pain was accepted by 90 percent of the patients and disappeared after treatment with oral diclofenac. The immediate complications included anal spasm in 10 percent, postoperative bleeding in 2.5 percent, and thrombosis of the external hemorrhoids in 2.5 percent of patients. Neither recurrence nor anal stenosis was observed after 12 months of follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Despite the limited number of patients and the short follow-up, the preliminary results of ligation-anopexy in the treatment of advanced hemorrhoidal disease are encouraging.

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