REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Endocrinology of gynaecomastia.

Gynaecomastia is the most common disorder of the male breast. It can occur at any age, and for this reason laboratory investigations may be requested by clinicians from many specialties. Gynaecomastia may occur transiently in neonates. It may also occur transiently during puberty, when it is common and generally benign. It must, however, be regarded as unusual in prepubertal children and all young and middle-aged men. Although iatrogenic and benign gynaecomastia are common in the elderly, further investigations may still be justified since breast cancer or other neoplasm must be ruled out. Biochemical investigations, when warranted, are aimed at establishing an underlying cause. Endocrine investigations might include serum oestradiol (or oestrone if available), testosterone, luteinizing hormone, sex-hormone-binding globulin, human chorionic gonadotrophin, prolactin and thyroid function tests. In this review, the source and role of oestrogens in men, the androgen oestrogen dynamics, the causes and clinical entities of gynaecomastia, and interpretation of laboratory tests are described.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app