Association between inflammation and changes in residual renal function and peritoneal transport rate during the first year of dialysis

S H Chung, O Heimbürger, P Stenvinkel, J Bergström, B Lindholm
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 2001, 16 (11): 2240-5

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal transport rate, a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient survival, increases in most patients starting on PD, while in other patients peritoneal transport rate may decline. Although several factors may contribute to changes in peritoneal transport rate, inflammation is known to be associated with a high peritoneal transport rate, and residual renal function (RRF), which often declines after start of PD, may also be related to inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in peritoneal transport rate during patients' first year on PD and declining RRF may be linked with inflammation.

METHODS: A total of 76 PD patients (40 males, mean age 56.8+/-14.1 years), who underwent two peritoneal equilibration tests at a mean of 0.4 months and 1 year after beginning PD, were included in the study. Based on the change in dialysate to plasma creatinine concentration ratio at 4-h dwell (D/P Cr) during first year on PD, the patients were divided into decreased or unchanged (group DUC; n=22) and increased (group I; n=54) groups.

RESULTS: Initially, group I had a lower proportion of high transporters and more often high serum C-reactive protein (sCRP, > or =10 mg/l) and lower RRF compared with the DUC group. In group I, serum albumin and RRF decreased significantly and dialysate protein loss and glucose absorption increased significantly during the first year on PD. When patients were divided into two groups based on median change in RRF (1.9 ml/min), patients with a decrease in RRF >1.9 ml/min during first year on PD had a higher proportion of high sCRP, higher D/P Cr, and higher changes in D/P Cr compared to patients with a decrease in RRF < or =1.9 ml/min. Patients with elevated sCRP at one year included a higher proportion of patients who had high sCRP at the start of PD, higher increase in D/P Cr, lower serum albumin, lower RRF, and more decrease in RRF during first year on PD compared with patients having normal sCRP. RRF was inversely correlated with changes in D/P Cr during the first year on PD (r=-0.28, P=0.02). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the only factors affecting changes in D/P Cr were high sCRP and a low RRF.

CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary short-term study suggests that changes in peritoneal transport rate during patients' first year on PD may be linked with inflammation and declining residual renal function. Inflammation and residual renal function were identified as the only independent factors determining peritoneal transport rate during the first year on PD. It is possible that inflammation may cause both an increase in peritoneal transport rate and a decline in residual renal function, or that the decline in residual renal function and the increase in peritoneal transport rate may induce or aggravate inflammation. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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