Ceramide mediates insulin resistance by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in brown adipocytes by maintaining Akt in an inactive dephosphorylated state

T Teruel, R Hernandez, M Lorenzo
Diabetes 2001, 50 (11): 2563-71
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha causes insulin resistance on glucose uptake in fetal brown adipocytes. We explored the hypothesis that some effects of TNF-alpha could be mediated by the generation of ceramide, given that TNF-alpha treatment induced the production of ceramide in these primary cells. A short-chain ceramide analog, C2-ceramide, completely precluded insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane, as determined by Western blot or immunofluorescent localization of GLUT4. These effects were not produced in the presence of a biologically inactive ceramide analog, C2-dihydroceramide. Analysis of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase signaling pathway indicated that C2-ceramide precluded insulin stimulation of Akt kinase activity, but not of PI-3 kinase or protein kinase C-zeta activity. C2-ceramide completely abolished insulin-stimulated Akt/protein kinase B phosphorylation on regulatory residues Thr 308 and Ser 473, as did TNF-alpha, and inhibited insulin-induced mobility shift in Akt1 and Akt2 separated in PAGE. Moreover, C2-ceramide seemed to activate a protein phosphatase (PP) involved in dephosphorylating Akt because 1) PP2A activity was increased in C2-ceramide- and TNF-alpha-treated cells, 2) treatment with okadaic acid concomitantly with C2-ceramide completely restored Akt phosphorylation by insulin, and 3) transient transfection of a constitutively active form of Akt did not restore Akt activity. Our results indicate that ceramide produced by TNF-alpha induces insulin resistance in brown adipocytes by maintaining Akt in an inactive dephosphorylated state.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"