Sinus floor elevation using a bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss) with or without the concomitant use of a bilayered collagen barrier (Bio-Gide): a clinical report of immediate and delayed implant placement

G Tawil, M Mawla
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 2001, 16 (5): 713-21
Xenografts have been used extensively, either alone or in combination with autogenous bone, in sinus floor elevation techniques. However, controversy exists regarding the need to cover the lateral osteotomy site with a membrane. Also, the healing period before loading remains undefined when machined-surface implants are placed. Twenty-nine patients showing reduced bone volume in the posterior maxilla had 61 Brånemark System implants placed in 30 sinuses augmented with a lateral osteotomy approach. Sinuses grafted with Bio-Oss and covered with a collagen membrane Bio-Gide (M+) received 29 implants, while grafted but uncovered sites (M-) received 32 implants. An immediate procedure was followed to place 41 implants and a staged procedure was used for 20 implants. Abutment connection was made in 2 distinct postoperative periods: 6 to 9 months and over 9 months. The patients were followed for an average of 22.4 months. The survival rate of the implants was dependent on the postoperative healing time and membrane presence. In case of the immediate procedure and in M- sites, when residual bone height was less than 5 mm, more failures occurred when the loading was done at 6 to 9 months than after 9 months. No failures occurred in the M- series when a staged approach was followed. The overall survival rate was 78.1% for the M- sites and 93.1% for the M+ sites. No failures occurred (0/35) in the control implants placed in adjacent native bone. Implant survival rate was related to the quality of the reconstructed cortical plate and to implant length. The concomitant use of a collagen barrier to cover the osteotomy site, when machined-surface implants were used in sinus grafting, seemed to improve the quality of the graft healing and survival rate of the implants loaded between 6 and 9 months after placement.

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