Cyr61, a member of CCN family, is a tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer

X Tong, D Xie, J O'Kelly, C W Miller, C Muller-Tidow, H P Koeffler
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2001 December 14, 276 (50): 47709-14
Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) is a member of a family of growth factor-inducible immediate-early genes. It regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation and is involved in tumor growth. In our experiments, the role of Cyr61 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was examined. Expression of Cyr61 mRNA was decreased markedly in four of five human lung tumor samples compared with their normal matched lung samples. NSCLC cell lines NCI-H520 and H460, which have no endogenous Cyr61, formed 60-90% fewer colonies after being transfected with a Cyr61 cDNA expression vector than cells transfected with the same amount of empty vector. After stable transfection of a Cyr61 cDNA expression vector, proliferation of both H520-Cyr61 and H460-Cyr61 sublines decreased remarkably compared with the cells stably transfected with empty vector. The addition of antibody against Cyr61 partially rescued the growth suppression of both H520-Cyr61 and H460-Cyr61 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that both H520-Cyr61 and H460-Cyr61 cells developed G(1) arrest, prominently up-regulated expression of p53 and p21(WAF1), and had decreased activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 2. The increase of pocket protein pRB2/p130 was also detected in these cells. Notably, both of the Cyr61-stably transfected lung cancer cell lines developed smaller tumors than those formed by the wild-type cells in nude mice. Taken together, we conclude that Cyr61 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC.

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