Protective effect of endothelin type A receptor antagonist on brain edema and injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

Y Matsuo, Mihara Si, M Ninomiya, M Fujimoto
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 2001, 32 (9): 2143-8

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent evidence strongly suggests that endothelins (ETs) play an important role in the regulation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of ETs on edema formation and BBB permeability change after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

METHODS: We examined the brain tissue ET-1 content and evaluated the time and dose response of the therapeutic effects of the specific ET type A receptor (ET(A)) antagonist, S-0139, on brain edema formation, development of infarction, and disruption of BBB after 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.

RESULTS: After 1-hour MCAO and reperfusion, the brain ET-1 content did not change during the first 3 hours, increased at 6 hours, and rose almost continuously over 48 hours in the ischemic region as well as in the ischemic rim. Rats infused with S-0139 (0.03 to 1.0 mg/kg per hour) during reperfusion showed dose-dependent and significant attenuation of the increase in brain water content 24 hours after reperfusion. When the infusion of S-0139 was begun after 10 minutes and 1 hour of reperfusion, the brain edema formation and infarct size were significantly attenuated. Furthermore, posttreatment with S-0139 significantly attenuated the increased Evans blue dye-quantified albumin extravasation and improved the mortality of animals after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that infusion with S-0139, an ET(A) antagonist, results in significant reduction of brain injury and plasma extravasation after transient MCAO. Thus, ETs may contribute to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury at least partly by increasing the BBB permeability via ET(A)s.

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