The influence of female gender on the outcome of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

M Mathison, G J Becker, B T Katzen, J F Benenati, G Zemel, A Powell, M E Kovacs, M M Lima
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR 2001, 12 (9): 1047-51

PURPOSE: Women appear to have a greater risk of death than men after open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of this study is to compare outcomes after endovascular AAA repair in men and women.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1994 to November 2000, 305 patients (281 men and 24 women) underwent AAA repair with use of endovascular techniques. Outcomes measured included perioperative mortality, percentage of procedures aborted or converted to open abdominal AAA repair, deployment success rate, angiographic success rate, major complication rate, and percentage of patients with endoleaks.

RESULTS: Patients of both genders were comparable with respect to mean age (74.4 in men vs 75.9 in women; NS). According to the Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society of Cardiovascular Surgery risk stratification method, men and women were also comparable in age risk score (0.60 vs 0.67; NS), pulmonary risk score (0.50 vs 0.83; NS), and renal risk score (0.28 vs 0.17; NS). However, the cardiac risk score was higher in men (1.31 vs 0.80; P <.05) and maximum AAA diameter was greater in men (57.0 mm vs 52.1 mm; P <.01). Eight perioperative deaths (2.6%) occurred (2.8% of men, 0% of women; NS). Proportionately more procedures were aborted in women than men: four (16.7%) versus six (2.1%; P <.01). Conversion to open repair occurred in four men (1.4%) and no women (NS). Deployment success was achieved in 96.4% of men and 83.3% of women (P <.01). Angiographic success was achieved in 84.1% of men and 80% of women (NS). Of 46 major complications, 42 (14.9%) occurred in 281 men and four (16.7%) occurred in 24 women (NS). Sixty-seven patients had endoleaks: 60 were men (22.1%) and seven were women (35%; NS).

CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference between men and women with respect to perioperative mortality and major complication rates. These findings indicate that being a woman does not adversely influence the outcome of endovascular AAA repair. However, women had a higher rate of aborted procedures. Precise preoperative evaluation may help reduce this problem in women.

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