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Cholera in the United States, 1995-2000: trends at the end of the twentieth century.

To evaluate recent trends in cholera in the United States, surveillance data from all cases of laboratory-confirmed toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 infection reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1995 and 2000 were reviewed. Sixty-one cases of cholera, all caused by V. cholerae O1, were reported. There was 1 death, and 35 (57%) of the patients were hospitalized. Thirty-seven (61%) infections were acquired outside the United States; 14 (23%) were acquired through undercooked seafood consumed in the United States, 2 (3%) were acquired through sliced cantaloupe contaminated by an asymptomatically infected food handler, and no source was identified for 8 (13%) infections. The proportion of travel-associated infections resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin, and furazolidone increased from 7 (8%) of 88 in 1990-1994 to 11 (31%) of 35 in 1995-2000. Foreign travel and undercooked seafood continue to account for most US cholera cases. Antimicrobial resistance has increased among V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from ill travelers.

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