Histologic analysis of clinical biopsies taken 6 months and 3 years after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with 80% bovine hydroxyapatite and 20% autogenous bone mixed with fibrin glue

M Hallman, S Lundgren, L Sennerby
Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research 2001, 3 (2): 87-96

BACKGROUND: Bovine hydroxyapatite (Bio-Oss, Geistlich Pharmaceutical, Wollhausen, Switzerland) has been suggested to be used in maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures prior to or in conjunction with implant placement. However, the long-term histologic fate of this material is not well understood.

PURPOSE: The aim with this study was to histologically evaluate the tissue response in patients to a mixture of bovine hydroxyapatite (BH), autogenous bone, and fibrin glue 6 months and 3 years after a maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure.

MATERIALS AND METHOD: Biopsies were taken from a group of 20 consecutive patients 6 months (n = 16) and 3 years (n = 12) after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with a mixture of BH (80%), autogenous bone (20%), and fibrin glue and prepared for histologic analysis.

RESULTS: Light microscopy and morphometry from biopsies taken after 6 months showed various amounts of mineralized bone tissue. The specimen area was occupied by 54.1 +/- 12.6% nonmineralized tissue, followed by 21.2 +/- 24.5% lamellar bone, 14.5 +/- 10.3% BH particles, and 10.2 +/- 13.4% woven bone. The nonmineralized tissue seen in bone-forming areas consisted of a loose connective tissue, rich with vessels and cells. There were no signs of resorption of the BH particles. The lamellar bone appeared to have originated from the recipient site and was seldom in contact with the BH particles. After 3 years, the nonmineralized tissue area had decreased to 36.0 +/- 19.0% (p < .05) and consisted mainly of bone marrow tissue. The surface area of lamellar bone had increased to 50.7 +/- 22.8% (p < .05), and there was almost no immature bone. The mean specimen area occupied by BH particles, was 12.4 +/- 8.7% and had not changed from 6 months (not significant). Moreover, the sizes of the particles were similar after 6 months and 3 years. The degree of BH particle-bone contact had increased from 28.8% +/- 19.9% after 6 months to 54.5 +/- 28.8% after 3 years (p < .05).

CONCLUSION: Histology of specimens from maxillary sinuses augmented with 80% BH particles, 20% autogenous bone, and fibrin glue showed a positive bone tissue response after 6 months and 3 years after augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor prior to implant placement in a group fo 20 patients. The bone surrounding and in contact with the BH particles after 6 months was mainly immature woven bone, which with time was replaced by mature lamellar bone filling the interparticle space as observed in the 3-year specimens. Moreover, bone-integrated BH particles seem to be resistant to resorption. The results indicate that the procedure may be considered when only small amounts of intraoral autogenous bone graft are available.

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