JOURNAL ARTICLE

Construction, safety, and immunogenicity in nonhuman primates of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus tetravalent vaccine

F Guirakhoo, J Arroyo, K V Pugachev, C Miller, Z X Zhang, R Weltzin, K Georgakopoulos, J Catalan, S Ocran, K Soike, M Ratterree, T P Monath
Journal of Virology 2001, 75 (16): 7290-304
11462001
We previously reported construction of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus (YF/DEN2) and determined its safety and protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys (F. Guirakhoo et al., J. Virol. 74:5477-5485, 2000). In this paper, we describe construction of three additional YF/DEN chimeras using premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of wild-type (WT) clinical isolates: DEN1 (strain PUO359, isolated in 1980 in Thailand), DEN3 (strain PaH881/88, isolated in 1988 in Thailand), and DEN4 (strain 1228, isolated in 1978 in Indonesia). These chimeric viruses (YF/DEN1, YF/DEN3, and YF/DEN4) replicated to ~7.5 log(10) PFU/ml in Vero cells, were not neurovirulent in 3- to 4-week-old ICR mice inoculated by the intracerebral route, and were immunogenic in monkeys. All rhesus monkeys inoculated subcutaneously with one dose of these chimeric viruses (as monovalent or tetravalent formulation) developed viremia with magnitudes similar to that of the YF 17D vaccine strain (YF-VAX) but significantly lower than those of their parent WT viruses. Eight of nine monkeys inoculated with monovalent YF/DEN1 -3, or -4 vaccine and six of six monkeys inoculated with tetravalent YF/DEN1-4 vaccine seroconverted after a single dose. When monkeys were boosted with a tetravalent YF/DEN1-4 dose 6 months later, four of nine monkeys in the monovalent YF/DEN groups developed low levels of viremia, whereas no viremia was detected in any animals previously inoculated with either YF/DEN1-4 vaccine or WT DEN virus. An anamnestic response was observed in all monkeys after the second dose. No statistically significant difference in levels of neutralizing antibodies was observed between YF virus-immune and nonimmune monkeys which received the tetravalent YF/DEN1-4 vaccine or between tetravalent YF/DEN1-4-immune and nonimmune monkeys which received the YF-VAX. However, preimmune monkeys developed either no detectable viremia or a level of viremia lower than that in nonimmune controls. This is the first recombinant tetravalent dengue vaccine successfully evaluated in nonhuman primates.

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