Laparoscopic management of malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheters

T Yilmazlar, M Yavuz, H Ceylan
Surgical Endoscopy 2001, 15 (8): 820-2

BACKGROUND: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is an established alternative method to hemodialysis for treating end-stage renal disease patients. However, this method is associated with a significant number of complications, such as catheter malposition, omental wrapping, and infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of laparoscopy in the treatment of malfunctioning CAPD catheters.

METHODS: Between November 1994 and June 1999, a total of 16 patients with CAPD underwent laparoscopy for the evaluation and management of CAPD catheter dysfunction. Two trocars (10-mm and 5-mm) were used. Recorded data included patient demographics, catheter implantation method, date of malfunction, cause of dysfunction, procedure performed, complications, and catheter outcome.

RESULTS: The primary etiology of dysfunction was omentum and/or small bowel wrapping with adhesions in eight cases, malpositioning in five cases, and infection in the remaining three cases. Adhesiolysis was performed in the eight cases with adhesions. In the five cases with malpositioning but no adhesions, the catheters were repositioned in the pelvic cavity. Two catheters had to be withdrawn because of infection. In one case with tunnel infection, the catheters were exchanged simultaneously. There was only one perioperative complication, consisting of temporary dialysate leakage. There were no mechanical or infection problems. The overall success rate of catheter function (>30 days after laparoscopy) was 100%, except for two cases in which the catheters had to be removed.

CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy is a highly effective and successful method for the evaluation and management of peritoneal dialysis catheter dysfunction.

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