Phytosiderophore release in Aegilops tauschii and Triticum species under zinc and iron deficiencies

I Tolay, B Erenoglu, V Römheld, H J Braun, I Cakmak
Journal of Experimental Botany 2001, 52 (358): 1093-9
Using three diploid (Triticum monococcum, AA), three tetraploid (Triticum turgidum, BBAA), two hexaploid (Triticum aestivum and Triticum compactum, BBAADD) wheats and two Aegilops tauschii (DD) genotypes, experiments were carried out under controlled environmental conditions in nutrient solution (i) to study the relationships between the rates of phytosiderophore (PS) release from the roots and the tolerance of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats and AE: tauschii to zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiencies, and (ii) to assess the role of different genomes in PS release from roots under different regimes of Zn and Fe supply. Phytosiderophores released from roots were determined both by measurement of Cu mobilized from a Cu-loaded resin and identification by using HPLC analysis. Compared to tetraploid wheats, diploid and hexaploid wheats were less affected by Zn deficiency as judged from the severity of leaf symptoms. Aegilops tauschii showed very slight Zn deficiency symptoms possibly due to its slower growth rate. Under Fe-deficient conditions, all wheat genotypes used were similarly chlorotic; however, development of chlorosis was first observed in tetraploid wheats. Correlation between PS release rate determined by Cu-mobilization test and HPLC analysis was highly significant. According to HPLC analysis, all genotypes of Triticum and AE: tauschii species released only one PS, 2'-deoxymugineic acid, both under Fe and Zn deficiency. Under Zn deficiency, rates of PS release in tetraploid wheats averaged 1 micromol x (30 plants)(-1) x (3 h)(-1), while in hexaploid wheats rate of PS release was around 14 micromol x (30 plants)(-1) x (3 h)(-1). Diploid wheats and AE: tauschii accessions behaved similarly in their capacity to release PS and intermediate between tetraploid and hexaploid wheats regarding the PS release capacity. All Triticum and Aegilops species released more PS under Fe than Zn deficiency, particularly when the rate of PS release was expressed per unit dry weight of roots. On average, the rates of PS release under Fe deficiency were 3.0, 5.7, 8.4, and 16 micromol x (30 plants)(-1) x (3 h)(-1) for AE: tauschii, diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats, respectively. The results of the present study show that the PS release mechanism in wheat is expressed effectively when three genomes, A, B and D, come together, indicating complementary action of the corresponding genes from A, B and D genomes to activate biosynthesis and release of PS.

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