JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Coadministration of losartan and enalapril exerts additive antiproteinuric effect in IgA nephropathy

D Russo, R Minutolo, A Pisani, R Esposito, G Signoriello, M Andreucci, M M Balletta
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2001, 38 (1): 18-25
11431176
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists (ARAs) are widely administered to reduce urinary protein loss and slow the progression of proteinuric nephropathy to end-stage renal failure. Our group recently observed that the combination of ACE inhibitors and ARAs may have an additive antiproteinuric effect, which may occur because ACE inhibitors do not completely reduce angiotensin II (Ang II) production. Ang II is also produced by chymase. Thus, combination therapy better antagonizes the effects of Ang II. The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether the additive antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibitors plus ARAs is dose dependent and related to the drug-induced reduction in systemic blood pressure. Therefore, enalapril (E; 10 mg/d) and losartan (LOS; 50 mg/d) were randomly administered alone and then in association; initial dosages were doubled when drugs were administered alone and in association. To determine the influence of the drug-dependent effect on reducing blood pressure and the reduction in urinary proteinuria, both ambulatory and office blood pressures were recorded. E and LOS administered alone reduced proteinuria by the same extent; no further reduction was observed when E and LOS alone were administered at a doubled dose. When E and LOS were coadministered, proteinuria decreased by a greater extent compared with E and LOS alone; an additional reduction in proteinuria was observed when combined therapy doses were doubled. The reduction in proteinuria was not correlated with clinical through blood pressure; however, reductions in diastolic and mean ambulatory blood pressures significantly correlated with the decrease in proteinuria, as well as with creatinine clearance. In conclusion, this study shows that combination therapy with E and LOS has an additive dose-dependent antiproteinuric effect that is likely induced by the drug-related reduction in systemic blood pressure. In normotensive proteinuric patients, it is likely that even a small reduction in systemic blood pressure may affect intraglomerular hemodynamics by a great extent because efferent arteriole regulation is hampered more completely by the coadministration of ACE inhibitors and ARAs.

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