JOURNAL ARTICLE

Pharmacokinetic basis for the efficient and safe use of low-dose mycophenolate mofetil in combination with tacrolimus in kidney transplantation

M Mourad, J Malaise, D Chaib Eddour, M De Meyer, J König, R Schepers, J P Squifflet, P Wallemacq
Clinical Chemistry 2001, 47 (7): 1241-8
11427455

BACKGROUND: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an effective posttransplantation immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tc). An increase in plasma mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been shown in patients receiving Tc-MMF combination therapy compared with CsA-MMF combination therapy at the same dose of MMF. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship for MPA in kidney transplant patients receiving low-dose MMF (500 mg twice a day) in combination with Tc.

METHODS: Adult kidney transplant recipients (n = 51) were included. MPA-PK profiles (blood sampling at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h after MMF oral dose) were obtained within the first 2 weeks after transplantation, 3 months after grafting, and at every adverse clinical event [side effect or acute rejection (AR)]. All patients received Tc, MMF (500 mg twice a day), and steroids.

RESULTS: Thirty patients (59%) had uneventful outcomes, and 21 patients had 33 episodes of MPA-related side effects; only 3 patients had AR. A total of 78 MPA-PK profiles were obtained. The following PK parameters were increased in the side-effects group compared with the non-side effects group: mean MPA c(min), 2.63 +/- 1.58 vs 1.75 +/- 0.82 mg/L (P = 0.016); mean c(30), 10.47 +/- 6.27 vs 7.66 +/- 8.95 mg/L (P = 0.009); mean c(60), 9.67 +/- 5.42 vs 5.83 +/- 2.6 mg/L (P = 0.0002); mean area under the MPA time-concentration curve from 0 to 12 h [MPA-AUC((0-12))], 48.38 +/- 18.5 vs 36.04 +/- 10.82 mg. h/L (P = 0.0006); mean dose-normalized MPA-AUC, 0.16 +/- 0.05 vs 0.12 +/- 0.04 (mg. h/L)/(mg/m(2)) (P = 0.0015). For the three AR patients, MPA concentrations obtained at the time of AR revealed MPA c(min) values of 1.86, 1.76, and 3.83 mg/L, respectively, and MPA-AUC((0-12)) values of 37.7, 24.9, and 104.9 mg. h/L. The threshold of toxicity was 3 mg/L (sensitivity, 38.7%; specificity, 91.5%) for c(min), 8.09 mg/L for maximum MPA concentration during the first hour (sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 67.4%), and 37.6 mg. h/L for MPA-AUC((0-12)) (sensitivity, 83.3%; specificity, 59.6%).

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the relationship between plasma MPA concentrations and toxicity. High c(min), c(30), and c(60) values as well as AUC((0-12)) are associated with increased risk for side effects. These values may have an importance in a routine monitoring program.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
11427455
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"