Testicular microlithiasis: what is its association with testicular cancer?

A M Bach, L E Hann, O Hadar, W Shi, H H Yoo, C S Giess, J Sheinfeld, H Thaler
Radiology 2001, 220 (1): 70-5

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in patients who were referred for scrotal ultrasonography (US) at a tertiary care cancer center and to evaluate the association between microlithiasis and cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testicular sonograms obtained in 528 men were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with US findings suggestive of microlithiasis, intratesticular masses, and intratesticular heterogeneous changes. The association of US findings with medical records and with histopathologic findings that were available in 95 patients was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship of testicular cancer, intratesticular mass, and microlithiasis.

RESULTS: Forty-eight (9%) of the 528 patients had microlithiasis; 13 of these (27%) had testicular cancers. Of the 480 patients without microlithiasis, 38 (8%) had testicular cancer. Ninety patients had an intratesticular mass, of whom 23 (26%) had microlithiasis. Forty-three (12 with microlithiasis) patients with a mass had testicular cancer, 43 (10 with microlithiasis) had benign findings or nontesticular malignant histopathologic findings, and four (one with microlithiasis) had no pathologic findings.

CONCLUSION: Intratesticular microlithiasis is highly associated with confirmed testicular cancer, as well as with US evidence of testicular mass.

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