Kinetics of beta-lactam interactions with penicillin-susceptible and -resistant penicillin-binding protein 2x proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Involvement of acylation and deacylation in beta-lactam resistance

W P Lu, E Kincaid, Y Sun, M D Bauer
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2001 August 24, 276 (34): 31494-501
Kinetic interactions of beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin-G and cefotaxime with normal, penicillin-susceptible PBP2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae and a penicillin-resistant PBP2x (PBP2x(R)) from a resistant clinical isolate (CS109) of the bacterium have been extensively characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry coupled with a fast reaction (quench flow) technique. Kinetic evidence for a two-step acylation of PBP2x by penicillin-G has been demonstrated, and the dissociation constant, K(d) of 0.9 mm, and the acylation rate constant, k(2) of 180 s(-1), have been determined for the first time. The millimolar range K(d) implies that the beta-lactam fits to the active site pocket of the penicillin-sensitive PBP rather poorly, whereas the extremely fast k(2) value indicates that this step contributes most of the binding affinity of the beta-lactam. The values of K(d) (4 mm) and k(2) (0.56 s(-1)) were also determined for PBP2x(R). The combined value of k(2)/K(d), known as overall binding efficiency, for PBP2x(R) (137 m(-1) s(-1)) was over 1000-fold slower than that for PBP2x (200,000 m(-1) s(-1)), indicating that a major part is played by the acylation steps in penicillin resistance. Most of the decreased binding efficiency of PBP2x(R) comes from the decreased ( approximately 300-fold) k(2). Kinetic studies of cefotaxime acylation of the two PBP2x proteins confirmed all of the above findings. Deacylation rate constants (k(3)) for the third step of the interactions were determined to be 8 x 10(-6) s(-1) for penicilloyl-PBP2x and 5.7 x 10(-4) s(-1) for penicilloyl-PBP2x(R), corresponding to over 70-fold increase of the deacylation rate for the resistant PBP2x(R). Similarly, over 80-fold enhancement of the deacylation rate was found for cefotaxime-PBP2x(R) complex (k(3) = 3 x 10(-4) s(-1)) as compared with that of cefotaxime-PBP2x complex (3.5 x 10(-6) s(-1)). This is the first time that such a significant increase of k(3) values was found for a beta-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding protein. These data indicate that the deacylation step also plays a role, which is much more important than previously thought, in PBP2x(R) resistance to beta-lactams.

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