Are coffee, tea, and total fluid consumption associated with bladder cancer risk? Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

M P Zeegers, E Dorant, R A Goldbohm, P A van den Brandt
Cancer Causes & Control: CCC 2001, 12 (3): 231-8

OBJECTIVES: Coffee, tea, and fluid consumption have been thought to influence bladder cancer incidence. In a large prospective study, these associations were investigated.

METHODS: In 1986, cohort members (55-69 years) completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up was established by linkage to cancer registries until 1992. The multivariable case-cohort analysis was based on 569 bladder cancer cases and 3,123 subcohort members.

RESULTS: The incidence rate ratios (RR) for men consuming <2 cups of coffee/day was 0.89 (95% CI 0.51-1.5) using the median consumption category (4-<5 cups/day) as reference. This RR increased to 1.3 (95% CI 0.94-1.9) for men consuming >7 cups/day, although no clear dose response association was found. The RRs decreased from 1.2 (95% CI 0.56-2.7) for women consuming <2 cups of coffee/day to 0.36 (95% CI 0.18-0.72) for women consuming >5 cups/day compared to the median consumption category (3-<4 cups/day). Men and women who abstained from drinking tea had a RR of 1.3 (95% Cl 0.97-1.8) compared to those consuming 2-<3 cups of tea per day (median consumption category). The RR for men and women comparing highest to lowest quintile of total fluid consumption was 0.87 (95% CI 0.63 1.2).

CONCLUSION: The data suggest a possible positive association between coffee consumption and bladder cancer risk in men and a probable inverse association in women. Tea consumption was inversely associated with bladder cancer. Total fluid consumption did not appear to be associated with bladder cancer.

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