Hyaluronan supports recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone reconstruction of advanced alveolar ridge defects in dogs. A pilot study

D R Hunt, S A Jovanovic, U M Wikesjö, J M Wozney, G W Bernard
Journal of Periodontology 2001, 72 (5): 651-8

BACKGROUND: Prosthetic-driven implant dentistry requires predictable procedures for alveolar ridge augmentation. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate bone regeneration in mandibular, full-thickness, alveolar ridge, saddle-type defects following surgical implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a novel hyaluronan (HY) sponge carrier. This sponge was fabricated from auto-crosslinked HY.

METHODS: Alveolar ridge defects (approximately 15 x 10 x 10 mm), 2 per jaw quadrant, were surgically prepared in each of 3 young adult American fox hounds. Four defects were immediately implanted with rhBMP-2/HY. Three defects were implanted with rhBMP-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier (positive control). The rhBMP-2 solution (1.5 ml at 0.2 mg/ml) was soak-loaded onto the HY and ACS sponges. Three defects were implanted with HY sponges soak-loaded with buffer without rhBMP-2 (negative control), while 2 defects served as surgical controls. The animals were euthanized at 12 weeks postsurgery for histometric analysis.

RESULTS: Clinically, alveolar ridge defects receiving rhBMP-2/ACS exhibited a slight supracrestal expansion, while defects receiving rhBMP-2/HY were filled to contour. In contrast, the HY and surgical controls exhibited ridge collapse. rhBMP-2/HY-treated defects exhibited a dense bone quality without radiolucent regions observed in defects treated with rhBMP-2/ACS. The histometric analysis showed 100% bone fill for the rhBMP-2/ACS defects and 94%, 58%, and 65% bone fill for the rhBMP-2/HY, HY, and surgical control defects, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The conclusions are based on data from 2 of 3 animals in the study. In one animal, no response to rhBMP-2 was observed with either carrier, and the animal may have been a non-responder of unknown nature. With this limitation, the observations herein suggest that: 1) HY supports significant bone induction by rhBMP-2; 2) the rhBMP-2-induced bone assumes qualities of the immediate resident bone; 3) HY alone exhibits no apparent osteoconductive potential; and 4) HY appears to resorb within a 12-week healing interval in the absence or presence of rhBMP-2. Thus, HY appears to be a suitable candidate carrier for rhBMP-2.

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