Ictal hyperperfusion of cerebellum and basal ganglia in temporal lobe epilepsy: SPECT subtraction with MRI coregistration

W C Shin, S B Hong, W S Tae, D W Seo, S E Kim
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2001, 42 (6): 853-8

UNLABELLED: The ictal hyperperfusion (compared with the interictal state) of the cerebellum and basal ganglia has not been investigated systematically in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Their ictal perfusion patterns were analyzed in relation to temporal and frontal hyperperfusion during TLE seizures using SPECT subtraction.

METHODS: Thirty-three TLE patients had interictal and ictal SPECT, video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, and volumetric MRI. SPECT subtraction with MRI coregistration was performed using commercial software. The presence of ictal hyperperfusion was determined in the ipsilateral and contralateral temporal lobe, frontal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia.

RESULTS: All patients showed ictal hyperperfusion in the temporal lobe of seizure origin. Vermian cerebellar hyperperfusion (CH) was observed in 26 patients (78.8%) and hemispheric CH was found in 25 (75.8%). Compared with the side of the epileptogenic temporal lobe, there were 7 patients with ipsilateral hemispheric CH (28.0%), 15 with contralateral hemispheric CH (60.0%), and 3 with bilateral hemispheric CH (12.0%). CH was observed more frequently in patients with additional frontal hyperperfusion (14/15, 93.3%; 2 ipsilateral to the seizure focus, 10 contralateral, and 2 bilateral) than in patients without frontal hyperperfusion (11/18, 61.1%). Among 18 patients with temporal hyperperfusion without frontal hyperperfusion, 11 patients showed hemispheric CH (5 ipsilateral to seizure focus, 5 contralateral, 1 bilateral). Hyperperfusion in the basal ganglia (BGH) was seen in 11 of the 15 patients with temporal and frontal hyperperfusion (73.3%) and in 11 of the 18 with only temporal hyperperfusion (61.1%). In 17 patients with unilateral BGH (13 ipsilateral to the seizure focus, 4 contralateral), CH contralateral to the BGH was observed in 14 (82.5%), CH ipsilateral to the BGH was found in 2 (11.8%), and CH bilateral to the BGH was found in 1 (5.9%).

CONCLUSION: During TLE seizures, hemispheric CH occurred not only in contralateral but also in ipsilateral or bilateral cerebellar hemispheres to the side of seizure origin. Although temporal lobe origin seizures associated with additional frontal hyperperfusion produced more frequent hemispheric CH, seizures showing only temporal hyperperfusion without frontal hyperperfusion could produce BGH and CH. To determine the side of hemispheric CH, the most important factor appears to be the side of BGH, not the side of seizure origin.


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