Caveolin-1 mediates testosterone-stimulated survival/clonal growth and promotes metastatic activities in prostate cancer cells

L Li, G Yang, S Ebara, T Satoh, Y Nasu, T L Timme, C Ren, J Wang, S A Tahir, T C Thompson
Cancer Research 2001 June 1, 61 (11): 4386-92
Previously, we demonstrated that up-regulation of caveolin-1 (cav-1) was associated with prostate cancer metastasis, biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, and androgen insensitivity. The objective of this study was to characterize the regulation of cav-1 by testosterone (T) and to test the effects of cav-1 on prostate cancer cell survival/clonal growth and metastatic activities. Our results demonstrated that T up-regulated cav-1 protein levels in part through transcriptional regulation and significantly enhanced survival of prostate cancer cell lines ABAC3 and LNCaP after serum starvation (>40% and >60% increased viability, respectively) and in an extended clonogenic assay (approximately 4-fold and 6-fold increase in colonies, respectively). Importantly, antisense cav-1 inhibited the survival effects of T in these assay systems. Modest but not high levels of adenoviral vector-mediated cav-1 expression alone also significantly increased viability (>40%) and clonal growth (10-fold increase in colonies) after serum starvation. Analysis of spontaneous metastasis in stably transfected antisense cav-1 mouse prostate cancer cell clones demonstrated reduction of spontaneous lymph node metastasis incidence (13%), spontaneous lymph node metastasis volume (46%), and experimental lung metastasis incidence (40%) compared with vector control cell clones. Surgical castration further reduced spontaneous lymph node metastasis incidence and volume (18% and 28%, respectively) in antisense cancer cell clones, but not in vector control clones. Our studies demonstrate that cav-1 is a downstream effector of T-mediated prostate cancer cell survival/clonal growth and that modest levels of cav-1 can independently promote prostate cancer cell survival/clonal growth and metastatic activities.


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