Maxillary bone grafting for insertion of endosseous implants: results after 12-124 months

G M Raghoebar, N M Timmenga, H Reintsema, B Stegenga, A Vissink
Clinical Oral Implants Research 2001, 12 (3): 279-86
Insertion of endosseous implants in the atrophic maxilla is often complicated because of lack of supporting bone. Augmentation of the floor of the maxillary sinus with autogenous bone graft has been proven to be a reliable treatment modality, at least in the short term. The long-term clinical and radiographic outcome with regard to the grafts, the implants and satisfaction of the patients with their implant-supported overdenture was studied in 99 patients. The sinus floor was augmented with bone grafts derived from the iliac crest (83 subjects, 162 sinuses, 353 implants), the mandibular symphysis (14, 18, 37), or the maxillary tuberosity (2, 2, 2). Before implant installation, the width and height of the alveolar crest were increased in a first stage procedure in 74 patients, while in the other 25 patients augmentation and implant installation could be performed simultaneously (width and height of the alveolar crest >5 mm). Perforation of the sinus membrane occurred in 47 cases, which did not predispose to the development of sinusitis. Loss of bone particles and sequestration were observed in one (diabetic) patient only, in whom a dehiscence of the oral mucosa occurred. A second augmentation procedure was successful in this patient. Symptoms of transient sinusitis were observed in 3 patients. These symptoms were successfully treated with decongestants and antibiotics. 2 other patients developed a purulent sinusitis which resolved after a nasal antrostomy. In all cases, the bone volume was sufficient for implant insertion. 32 of 392 inserted Brånemark implants (8.2%) were lost during the follow-up. After the healing period of the bone grafts, no sinus pathology was observed. The patients received implant-supported overdentures (72 patients) or fixed bridges (27 patients). Overall, the patients were very satisfied with the prosthetic construction. We conclude that bone grafting of the floor of the maxillary sinus floor with autogenous bone for the insertion of implants is a reliable treatment modality with good long-term results.

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