Likelihood methods for incomplete longitudinal binary responses with incomplete categorical covariates

S R Lipsitz, J G Ibrahim, G M Fitzmaurice
Biometrics 1999, 55 (1): 214-23
We consider longitudinal studies in which the outcome observed over time is binary and the covariates of interest are categorical. With no missing responses or covariates, one specifies a multinomial model for the responses given the covariates and uses maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters. Unfortunately, incomplete data in the responses and covariates are a common occurrence in longitudinal studies. Here we assume the missing data are missing at random (Rubin, 1976, Biometrika 63, 581-592). Since all of the missing data (responses and covariates) are categorical, a useful technique for obtaining maximum likelihood parameter estimates is the EM algorithm by the method of weights proposed in Ibrahim (1990, Journal of the American Statistical Association 85, 765-769). In using the EM algorithm with missing responses and covariates, one specifies the joint distribution of the responses and covariates. Here we consider the parameters of the covariate distribution as a nuisance. In data sets where the percentage of missing data is high, the estimates of the nuisance parameters can lead to highly unstable estimates of the parameters of interest. We propose a conditional model for the covariate distribution that has several modeling advantages for the EM algorithm and provides a reduction in the number of nuisance parameters, thus providing more stable estimates in finite samples.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"