JOURNAL ARTICLE

Preoperative risk factors for hospital mortality in acute type A aortic dissection

K Kawahito, H Adachi, A Yamaguchi, T Ino
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2001, 71 (4): 1239-43
11308167

BACKGROUND: Acute type A dissection is associated with postoperative complications and a high mortality rate. This study was performed to determine the perioperative risk factors leading to hospital mortality in patients with acute type A aortic dissection.

METHODS: One hundred twenty-two patients with acute type A aortic dissection treated surgically within 48 hours after onset were enrolled in this study. Thirty-two perioperative risk factors were used in statistical analysis for prediction of mortality. Risk factors for hospital death were investigated with univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality rate including operative death was 12.3% (15 of 122 patients) and the actuarial survival rate (including in-hospital death) was 72%+/-6% at 5 years. Univariate analysis revealed 10 risk factors to be statistically significant predictors of hospital death: age, year of operation (1990 to 1995), Marfan syndrome, preoperative ST segment elevation, heart failure from aortic regurgitation, preoperative shock, preoperative coma, long operation time (> 6 hours), long cardiopulmonary bypass time (> 4 hours), and massive blood transfusion (> 20 units) (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed preoperative ST-T segment elevation and massive blood transfusion to be statistically significant independent risk factors for hospital death (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative ST-T elevation and massive blood transfusion during operation were identified as significant independent risk factors for hospital mortality after operation for acute type A aortic dissection. Our findings should contribute to estimation of operative risk in individual patients.

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