Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA induction in the periphery and brain following intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

N P Turrin, D Gayle, S E Ilyin, M C Flynn, W Langhans, G J Schwartz, C R Plata-Salamán
Brain Research Bulletin 2001 March 1, 54 (4): 443-53
Gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin) is known to play an important role in immune and neurological manifestations during bacterial infections. LPS exerts its effects through cytokines, and peripheral or brain administration of LPS activates cytokine production in the brain. In this study, we investigated cytokine and neuropeptide mRNA profiles in specific brain regions and peripheral organs, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha protein levels, in response to the intraperitoneal administration of LPS. For the first time, the simultaneous analysis of interleukin (IL)-1beta system components (ligand, signaling receptor, receptor accessory proteins, receptor antagonist), TNF-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, glycoprotein 130 (IL-6 receptor signal transducer), OB protein (leptin) receptor, neuropeptide Y, and pro-opiomelanocortin (opioid peptide precursor) mRNAs was done in samples from specific brain regions in response to peripherally administered LPS. The same brain region/organ sample was assayed for all cytokine mRNA components. Peripherally administered LPS up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and/or TNF-alpha) mRNAs within the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, spleen, liver, and adipose tissue. LPS also increased plasma levels of TNF-alpha protein. LPS did not up-regulate inhibitory (anti-inflammatory) cytokine (IL-1 receptor antagonist and TGF-beta1) mRNAs in most brain regions (except for IL-1 receptor antagonist in the cerebral cortex and for TGF-beta1 in the hippocampus), while they were increased in the liver, and IL-1 receptor antagonist was up-regulated in the spleen and adipose tissue. Overall, peripherally administered LPS modulated the levels of IL-1beta system components within the brain and periphery, but did not affect the neuropeptide-related components studied. The data suggest specificity of transcriptional changes induced by LPS and that cytokine component up-regulation in specific brain regions is relevant to the neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with peripheral LPS challenge.

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