In vivo interactions of apoA-II, apoA-I, and hepatic lipase contributing to HDL structure and antiatherogenic functions

C C Hedrick, L W Castellani, H Wong, A J Lusis
Journal of Lipid Research 2001, 42 (4): 563-70
Studies with mice have revealed that increased expression of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) results in elevations in high density lipoprotein (HDL), the formation of larger HDL, and the development of early atherosclerosis. We now show that the increased size of HDL results in part from an inhibition of the ability of hepatic lipase (HL) to hydrolyze phospholipids and triglycerides in the HDL and that the ratio of apoA-I to apoA-II determines HDL functional and antiatherogenic properties. HDL from apoA-II transgenic mice was relatively resistant to the action of HL in vitro. To test whether HL and apoA-II influence HDL size independently, combined apoA-II transgenic/HL knockout (HLko) mice were examined. These mice had HDL similar in size to apoA-II transgenic mice and HLko mice, suggesting that they do not increase HDL side by independent mechanisms. Overexpression of apoA-I from a transgene reversed many of the effects of apoA-II overexpression, including the ability of HDL to serve as a substrate for HL. Combined apoA-I/apoA-II transgenic mice exhibited significantly less atherosclerotic lesion formation than did apoA-II transgenic mice. These results were paralleled by the effects of the transgenes on the ability of HDL to protect against the proinflammatory effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL). Whereas nontransgenic HDL protected against oxidized LDL induction of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells, HDL from apoA-II transgenic mice was proinflammatory. HDL from combined apoA-I/apoA-II transgenic mice was equally as protective as HDL from nontransgenic mice. Our data suggest that as the ratio of apoA-II to apoA-I is increased, the HDL become larger because of inhibition of HL, and lose their antiatherogenic properties.

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