Comparative Study
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Femorofemoral bypass grafts: Factors influencing long-term patency rate and outcome.

Surgery 2001 April
BACKGROUND: Crossover femorofemoral bypass graft (CFFBG) was proposed in the early days of modern vascular surgery to treat patients affected with unilateral iliac artery disease who were a high surgical risk. We investigated factors influencing short- and long-term outcomes of CFFBG:

METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective clinical study in a university hospital setting with a base of 228 patients. Of these patients, 154 (67.5%) presented a high surgical risk. The indication for operation was limb-threatening ischemia in 188 (82.5%) patients. All patients underwent CFFBG: The procedure was performed in 150 patients as the primary operation and in 78 patients after previous vascular graft failure or infection, or both. A preoperative percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in 57 patients (25%) to correct donor iliac artery disease. In 127 patients (55.7%), an associated vascular procedure was performed to improve the outflow. Postoperative complications; 5- and 10-year primary, secondary, and limb salvage rates; and factors influencing short- and long-term results were assessed.

RESULTS: Thirteen (5.7%) postoperative deaths occurred. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were significantly higher in patients aged more than 65 years (7.9% versus 3.5% and 18.6% versus 6.1%, respectively, P <.03). Primary and secondary patency rates at 5 and 10 years were 70.2% and 48.1%, 82.8% and 63.2%, respectively; 5- and 10-year limb salvage and survival rates were 85.5% and 80.1%, 63.3% and 31.0%, respectively. Ten-year primary and secondary patency and limb salvage rates were significantly lower when the procedure was performed after previous vascular graft failures (50.2% versus 26.5%, P <.007; 74.1% versus 44.1%, P <.01; and 84.3% versus 72.5%, P <.03, respectively). Five- and 8-year patency rates of autogenous vein CFFBG (34.3% and 22.8%, respectively, P <.03) were significantly lower than those of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (71.1% and 59.8%, respectively) and polyester (77.3% and 50.3%, respectively) CFFBG: Moreover, 5- and 10-year primary and secondary patency rates were significantly better when externally supported grafts were used as compared with those without external support (80.1% and 69.9% versus 61.1% and 21.1%, P <.01; 88.8% and 75.9% versus 78.9% and 45.4%, P <.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that the only variable associated with poor primary and secondary patency and limb salvage rates was the operation performed after previous vascular graft failures (P <.04, P <.03 and P<.05, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: CFFBG allows early and long-term results similar to those obtained with reconstructions originating from the aorta when it is performed as a primary operation when an adequate outflow is provided and externally supported prosthetic material is used.

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