VEGF-D promotes the metastatic spread of tumor cells via the lymphatics

S A Stacker, C Caesar, M E Baldwin, G E Thornton, R A Williams, R Prevo, D G Jackson, S Nishikawa, H Kubo, M G Achen
Nature Medicine 2001, 7 (2): 186-91
Metastasis to local lymph nodes via the lymphatic vessels is a common step in the spread of solid tumors. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the spread of cancer by the lymphatics, we examined the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a ligand for the lymphatic growth factor receptor VEGFR-3/Flt-4, to induce formation of lymphatics in a mouse tumor model. Staining with markers specific for lymphatic endothelium demonstrated that VEGF-D induced the formation of lymphatics within tumors. Moreover, expression of VEGF-D in tumor cells led to spread of the tumor to lymph nodes, whereas expression of VEGF, an angiogenic growth factor which activates VEGFR-2 but not VEGFR-3, did not. VEGF-D also promoted tumor angiogenesis and growth. Lymphatic spread induced by VEGF-D could be blocked with an antibody specific for VEGF-D. This study demonstrates that lymphatics can be established in solid tumors and implicates VEGF family members in determining the route of metastatic spread.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.