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Pure red cell aplasia caused by Parvovirus B19 infection in solid organ transplant recipients: a case report and review of literature.

Human Parvovirus B19 (PV B19) is one of the several recently described 'emerging viruses' and has been identified as the etiological agent of 'fifth disease' in childhood. Human PV B19, which is the etiological agent of transient erythroblastopenia in hemolytic anemia, is also a recognized rare cause of red cell aplasia in immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients. To date, 26 cases of PV B19-induced red cell aplasia have been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. Twelve patients had cyclosporine-based immunosuppression and 14 had tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Sixteen of these patients required treatment with commercial intravenous immunoglobulin alone, 1 required treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis, 4 required intravenous immunoglobulin and erythropoietin, 1 required treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and conversion of tacrolimus to cyclosporine, 1 had improvement in hematocrit with erythropoietin alone and in 3 patients the disease was self-limiting. Herein, we report a case of pure red cell aplasia caused by acute PV B19 infection in a renal transplant recipient in whom the immunosuppressive regimen included prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus and the red cell aplasia resolved with discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil.

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