Outcomes of simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation in African-American recipients: a case-control study

A Lo, R J Stratta, M F Egidi, M H Shokouh-Amiri, H P Grewal, A T Kizilisik, R R Alloway, L W Gaber, A O Gaber
Clinical Transplantation 2000, 14 (6): 572-9

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested that African-American (AA) ethnicity is a risk factor for rejection and graft loss after kidney transplantation. However, little data is available regarding outcomes after simultaneous kidney pancreas transplantation (SKPT) in AA recipients. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of SKPT in AA patients to matched Caucasian patients as controls.

METHODS: From January 1996 to September 1999, we performed 79 SKPTs, including 10 in AA recipients. Ten Caucasian controls were selected and matched for age, gender, weight, timing and technique of transplantation, and immunosuppressive regimen. Clinical outcomes were collected and compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: The two groups were well matched for donor and recipient demographic, immunologic and transplant characteristics, including 2 patients in each group with type 2 diabetes. All patients received tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroids, and about half in each group received antibody induction therapy. Patient survival was 100% in both groups with a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 6 47). Kidney and pancreas graft survival rates were both 80% in the AA and 100% in the Caucasian groups, respectively (p = 0.14). All but one kidney (in the AA group) and all pancreas grafts experienced immediate function. There were two immunologic kidney and two immunologic pancreas graft losses in the AA group. No grafts were lost due to technical problems. The mean length of initial hospital stay was 16 d in the AA group compared to 10 d in the Caucasian group (p = 0.07). The AA group had a slight increase in the number of readmissions (mean 2.2 AA vs. 1.6 Caucasian, p = 0.08). The incidence of biopsy-proven pancreas acute rejection was significantly higher in the AA group (50%) compared to the Caucasian group (10%) (p = 0.05). The incidence of either kidney or pancreas acute rejection was also higher in the AA group (60% AA vs. 20% Caucasian, p = 0.06). TAC levels were comparable at specific times after transplantation, al-though there was a trend toward higher doses of TAC in the AA group to achieve therapeutic levels. The incidences of relaparotomy (30% AA vs. 20% Caucasian) and major infection (40% AA vs. 60% Caucasian) were similar between groups. Renal and pancreas allograft functions were comparable between groups at specific times after transplantation.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that SKPT in AA recipients may be associated with a higher incidence of rejection and immunologic graft loss compared to matched Caucasian controls.

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