Abdominal fat deposition and fatty acid synthesis are lower and beta-oxidation is higher in broiler chickens fed diets containing unsaturated rather than saturated fat

M Sanz, C J Lopez-Bote, D Menoyo, J M Bautista
Journal of Nutrition 2000, 130 (12): 3034-7
We evaluated the effects of dietary fat type on fat metabolism and deposition in broiler chickens. Birds were fed diets containing either 8 g dietary saturated (beef tallow) or polyunsaturated fat (sunflower oil)/100 g for 32 d. The abdominal fat deposition of chickens fed the sunflower oil-enriched diet was significantly lower than that of chickens fed the tallow-enriched diet (2.63 +/- 0.47 versus 3.03 +/- 0.44 g/100 g live wt.; P = 0.033). The specific activities of heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase were higher (P < or = 0.03) in chickens fed the sunflower oil-enriched diets, indicating a greater rate of beta-oxidation. Liver fatty acid synthetase activity was lower (P = 0.01) in chickens fed the sunflower oil-enriched diet, suggesting reduced hepatic lipogenesis in this group. Postprandial plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in birds fed the sunflower oil-enriched diet, indicating a higher rate of dietary lipid clearance from the bloodstream to tissues. In conclusion, the lower fat deposition observed in broilers fed sunflower oil-enriched diets appears to be the net result of an increased rate of lipid catabolism and lower rate of fatty acid synthesis despite higher dietary fat absorption.

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