JOURNAL ARTICLE

Induction of Fas expression and augmentation of Fas/Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis by the synthetic retinoid CD437 in human lung cancer cells

S Y Sun, P Yue, W K Hong, R Lotan
Cancer Research 2000 November 15, 60 (22): 6537-43
11103825
The synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Recently, we demonstrated that CD437 induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells expressing wild-type p53 by increasing the level of the death domain-containing cell surface receptor Killer/DR5. In the present study, we investigated whether CD437 induced the expression of Fas (CD95/APO-1), a cell surface protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which induces apoptosis upon interaction with Fas ligand (FasL) or agonistic antibodies. We found that CD437 increased the level of Fas mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in NSCLC H460 cells. The increased Fas expression was also identified at the protein level. CD437 induced Fas expression in three NSCLC cell lines with wild-type p53 but not in six NSCLC cell lines containing mutant p53. Moreover, enhanced degradation of wild-type p53 protein in NSCLC cells expressing human papillomavirus-16 E6 oncoprotein blocked CD437-induced Fas expression. These results implicate the involvement of wild-type p53 in CD437-induced Fas expression in human NSCLC cells. CD437 did not change Fas mRNA stability, and actinomycin D abolished CD437-induced expression of Fas mRNA, suggesting that CD437 induces Fas expression at the transcriptional level. The combination of CD437 and FasL or CD437 and agonistic anti-Fas antibody caused synergistic induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, CD437 augmented Fas/ FasL-induced apoptosis in cell lines with wild-type p53 but not in cell lines having mutant p53, indicating that a p53-dependent mechanism is also involved in this effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate that increased Fas expression may play an important role in CD437-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis in human NSCLC cells.

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