Sonic hedgehog promotes G(1) cyclin expression and sustained cell cycle progression in mammalian neuronal precursors

A M Kenney, D H Rowitch
Molecular and Cellular Biology 2000, 20 (23): 9055-67
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction via the G-protein-coupled receptor, Smoothened, is required for proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) during development. Activating mutations in the Hedgehog pathway are also implicated in basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastoma, a tumor of the cerebellum in humans. However, Shh signaling interactions with cell cycle regulatory components in neural precursors are poorly understood, in part because appropriate immortalized cell lines are not available. We have utilized primary cultures from neonatal mouse cerebella in order to determine (i) whether Shh initiates or maintains cell cycle progression in CGNPs, (ii) if G(1) regulation by Shh resembles that of classical mitogens, and (iii) whether individual D-type cyclins are essential components of Shh proliferative signaling in CGNPs. Our results indicate that Shh can drive continued cycling in immature, proliferating CGNPs. Shh treatment resulted in sustained activity of the G(1) cyclin-Rb axis by regulating levels of cyclinD1, cyclinD2, and cyclinE mRNA transcripts and proteins. Analysis of CGNPs from cyclinD1(-/-) or cyclinD2(-/-) mice demonstrates that the Shh proliferative pathway does not require unique functions of cyclinD1 or cyclinD2 and that D-type cyclins overlap functionally in this regard. In contrast to many known mitogenic pathways, we show that Shh proliferative signaling is mitogen-activated protein kinase independent. Furthermore, protein synthesis is required for early effects on cyclin gene expression. Together, our results suggest that Shh proliferative signaling promotes synthesis of regulatory factor intermediates that upregulate or maintain cyclin gene expression and activity of the G(1) cyclin-Rb axis in proliferating granule neuron precursors.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"