Alveolar ridge and sinus augmentation utilizing platelet-rich plasma in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft: case series

J D Kassolis, P S Rosen, M A Reynolds
Journal of Periodontology 2000, 71 (10): 1654-61

BACKGROUND: Alveolar bone regeneration is frequently necessary prior to placement of implants. Efforts to improve wound healing have focused on factors that may enhance bone formation following guided bone regeneration (GBR) techniques alone or in combination with bone replacement graft materials. Recent reports suggest that platelet-rich plasma (PRP), presumably high in levels of peptide growth factors, may enhance the formation of new bone when used in combination with autogenous graft material.

METHODS: In this report, the clinical and radiographic results are presented on 15 consecutively treated patients using autologous PRP in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) for sinus elevation and/or ridge augmentation. FDBA and PRP (0.5 g/2cc PRP) were mixed and placed as a composite graft material. A gel formed by mixing autologous thrombin-rich plasma with PRP (1:4 ratio) was used to cover the graft material. Core biopsies of grafted areas were obtained in several patients as part of implant site preparation and were evaluated histologically to determine site maturation.

RESULTS: Of 36 implant fixtures, 32 (89%) were considered clinically successful demonstrating complete bone coverage of the implant, no mobility, and a normal radiographic appearance at the time of re-entry and 12 months post-implant exposure. Four implants were removed due to mobility at the time of surgical exposure. Histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens revealed numerous areas of osteoid and bone formation around FDBA particles, with no evidence of inflammatory cell infiltrate.

CONCLUSIONS: These clinical and histological findings suggest that ridge augmentation and sinus grafting with FDBA in combination with PRP provide a viable therapeutic alternative for implant placements. Future studies are necessary to determine whether PRP enhances new bone formation or maturation with bone replacement allografts.

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