Incidence and risk factors of late rupture, conversion, and death after endovascular repair of infrarenal aortic aneurysms: the EUROSTAR experience. European Collaborators on Stent/graft techniques for aortic aneurysm repair

P L Harris, S R Vallabhaneni, P Desgranges, J P Becquemin, C van Marrewijk, R J Laheij
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2000, 32 (4): 739-49

OBJECTIVE: The EUROSTAR (European Collaborators on Stent/graft techniques for aortic aneurysm repair) Registry was established in 1996 to collect data on the outcome of treatment of patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms with endovascular repair. To date, 88 European centers of vascular surgery have contributed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of this treatment in the medium term (up to 4 years) according to the analysis of "hard" or primary end points of rupture, late conversion, and death.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with aortic aneurysms suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair were notified to the EUROSTAR Data Registry Centre before treatment to eliminate bias due to selective reporting. The following information was collected on all patients: (1) demographic details and the anatomic characteristics of their aneurysms, (2) details of the endovascular device used, (3) complications encountered during the procedure and the immediate outcome, (4) results of contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after operation and at yearly intervals thereafter, and (5) all adverse events. Life table analysis was performed to determine the cumulative rates of (1) death from all causes, (2) rupture, and (3) late conversion to open repair. Risk factors for rupture and late conversion were identified through regression analysis.

RESULTS: By March 2000, 2464 patients had been registered, and their mean duration of follow-up was 12.19 months (SD, 12.3 months). There were 14 patients with confirmed rupture of their aneurysms. The cumulative rate (risk) of rupture was approximately 1% per year. Emergency surgery was undertaken in 12 (86%) patients, of whom five (41.6%) survived. Two patients who were not treated surgically also died, which resulted in an overall death rate of 64.5% (9/14) of the patients. Significant risk factors for rupture were proximal type I endoleak (P =.001), midgraft (type III) endoleak (P =.001), graft migration (P =.001), and postoperative kinking of the endograft (P =.001). Forty-one patients underwent late conversion to open repair with a perioperative mortality rate of 24.4% (10/41). The cumulative rate (risk) of late conversion was approximately 2.1% per year. Risk factors (indications) for late conversion were proximal type I endoleak (P =. 001), midgraft (type III) endoleak (P =.001), type II endoleak (P =. 003), graft migration (P =.001), graft kinking (P =.001), and distal type I endoleak (P =.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular repair of infrarenal aortic aneurysms with the first- and second-generation devices that predominated in this study was associated with a risk of late failure, according to an analysis of observed hard end points of 3% per year. Action taken to address the risk factors identified by the study may improve results in the future.

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