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[Aplasia cutis congenita in a newborn: etiopathogenic review and diagnostic approach].

Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare condition characterized by the congenital absence of epidermis, dermis and, in some cases, subcutaneous tissues. It was first described by Cordon in 1767 and more than 500 cases have been reported since, with an estimate incidence of 3 in 10,000 births. The lesions may occur on any body surface although localised agenesis of the scalp is the most frequent pattern. In approximately 20% of cases underlying bone defects are also found. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated defect or with other associated anomalies. There is no unifying theory for the pathogenesis and large scalp defects present a management dilemma. We report a newborn with a large scalp defect in the midline at the vertex without associated malformations. There was no significant family history. Skull and extremities radiographs, chromosome analysis, cerebral and abdominal sonography were normal. Two methods of treatment were used: a conservative approach consisting of daily antiseptic dressing to allow scalp epithelialization improved conditions for secondary surgery at 30 days of life, closing the defect with local rotational flaps. The postoperative course was uneventful and an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

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