Implication of multiple mechanisms in apoptosis induced by the synthetic retinoid CD437 in human prostate carcinoma cells

S Y Sun, P Yue, R Lotan
Oncogene 2000 September 14, 19 (39): 4513-22
The synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) induces apoptosis in several types of cancer cell. CD437 inhibited the growth of both androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate carcinoma (HPC) cells in a concentration-dependent manner by rapid induction of apoptosis. CD437 was more effective in killing androgen-independent HPC cells such as DU145 and PC-3 than the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. The caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK and Z-DEVD-FMK blocked apoptosis induced by CD437 in DU145 and LNCaP cells, in which increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage were observed, but not in PC-3 cells, in which CD437 did not induce caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Thus, CD437 can induce either caspase-dependent or caspase-independent apoptosis in HPC cells. CD437 increased the expression of c-Myc, c-Jun, c-Fos, and death receptors DR4, DR5 and Fas. CD437's potency in apoptosis induction in the different cell lines was correlated with its effects on the expression of oncogenes and death receptors, thus implicating these genes in CD437-induced apoptosis in HPC cells. However, the importance and contribution of each of these genes in different HPC cell lines may vary. Because CD437 induced the expression of DR4, DR5 and Fas, we examined the effects of combining CD437 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand, respectively, in HPC cells. We found synergistic induction of apoptosis, highlighting the importance of the modulation of these death receptors in CD437-induced apoptosis in HPC cells. This result also suggests a potential strategy of using CD437 with TRAIL for treatment of HPC. Oncogene (2000) 19, 4513 - 4522.

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