COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Efficacy of preoxygenation with tidal volume breathing. Comparison of breathing systems

U Nimmagadda, M R Salem, N J Joseph, G Lopez, M Megally, D J Lang, Y Wafai
Anesthesiology 2000, 93 (3): 693-8
10969302

BACKGROUND: Preoxygenation before tracheal intubation is intended to increase oxygen reserves and delay the onset of hypoxemia during apnea. Various systems are used for preoxygenation. Designed specifically for preoxygenation, the NasOral system uses a small nasal mask for inspiration and a mouthpiece for exhalation. One-way valves in the nasal mask and the mouthpiece ensure unidirectional flow. This investigation compares the efficacy of preoxygenation using the standard circle system with the NasOral system and five different resuscitation bags.

METHODS: Twenty consenting, healthy volunteers were studied in the supine position for 5-min periods of tidal volume breathing using the circle absorber system, the NasOral system, and five resuscitation bags in a randomized order. Data were collected during room air breathing and at 30-s intervals during 5 min of oxygen administration. Inspired oxygen, end-tidal oxygen, and end-tidal nitrogen were measured by mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: At 2. 5 min of oxygenation, end-tidal oxygen plateaued at 88.1 +/- 4.8 and 89.3 +/- 6.4% (mean +/- SD) for the circle absorber and NasOral systems, respectively. This was associated with inverse decreases in end-tidal nitrogen. At no time did these end-tidal oxygen or nitrogen values differ from each other. Three of the resuscitation bags (one disk type and two duck-bill type with one-way exhalation valves) delivered inspired oxygen more than 90%, and the end-tidal oxygen plateaued between 77 and 89% at 2 min of tidal volume breathing. The other two resuscitation bags (both duck-bill bags without exhalation valves) delivered inspired oxygen less than 40%, and the end-tidal oxygen values ranged between 21.8 +/- 5.0 and 31.9 +/- 8.7%.

CONCLUSIONS: The circle absorber and NasOral systems were equally effective in achieving maximal preoxygenation during tidal volume breathing. Resuscitation bags differed markedly in effectiveness during preoxygenation; those with duck-bill valves without one-way exhalation valves were the least effective. Thus, the use of these bags should be avoided for preoxygenation.

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