Significance of changes in lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzyme activities in pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia

G Bayhan, Y Atamer, A Atamer, B Yokus, Y Baylan
Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology 2000, 27 (2): 142-6
This review addresses the general hypothesis that the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and eclampsia are related to an imbalance of increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation coupled with a deficiency of antioxidant protection. Accordingly, this study was initiated to assess total antioxidant status and free-radical activity in preeclampsia and eclampsia. The patients studied were 44 healthy pregnant women and 45 women with hypertension classified as having preeclampsia (n=27), and eclampsia (n=18). The serum levels of lipid peroxide were significantly increased (p<0.0001) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels) in erythrocytes were significantly decreased (p<0.0001) in women with preeclampsia and eclampsia compared with the controls. The groups of preeclampsia and eclampsia had similar values of catalase activities as the controls (p>0.05). There were no correlations between serum levels of lipid peroxide and antioxidant enzyme activities or systolic-diastolic blood pressure of pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels of preeclamptic and eclamptic women were high, whereas haemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Htc) and platelet levels were lower than those of the control subjects (p<0.0001). There were no differences in mean gestational week, whereas the mean age of eclamptic women was lower than that of the other two groups (p<0.001). The serum levels of Alanine-transaminase (ALT) and urea in eclamptic women were significantly higher compared with the other two groups (p<0.0001), whereas creatinine levels were lower than those of the other two groups (p<0.05). Our findings give support to those few studies considering lipid peroxidation as an important factor in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Further studies are needed to clarify the relations between lipid peroxidation and antioxidative function and their pathophysiological significance in preeclampsia and eclampsia.

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