Pyk2 and FAK differentially regulate progression of the cell cycle

J Zhao, C Zheng, J Guan
Journal of Cell Science 2000, 113: 3063-72
We have previously identified FAK and its associated signaling pathways as a mediator of cell cycle progression by integrins. In this report, we have analyzed the potential role and mechanism of Pyk2, a tyrosine kinase closely related to FAK, in cell cycle regulation by using tetracycline-regulated expression system as well as chimeric molecules. We have found that induction of Pyk2 inhibited G(1) to S phase transition whereas comparable induction of FAK expression accelerated it. Furthermore, expression of a chimeric protein containing Pyk2 N-terminal and kinase domain and FAK C-terminal domain (PFhy1) increased cell cycle progression as FAK. Conversely, the complementary chimeric molecule containing FAK N-terminal and kinase domain and Pyk2 C-terminal domain (FPhy2) inhibited cell cycle progression to an even greater extent than Pyk2. Biochemical analyses indicated that Pyk2 and FPhy2 stimulated JNK activation whereas FAK or PFhy1 had little effect on it, suggesting that differential activation of JNK by Pyk2 may contribute to its inhibition of cell cycle progression. In addition, Pyk2 and FPhy2 to a greater extent also inhibited Erk activation in cell adhesion whereas FAK and PFhy1 stimulated it, suggesting a role for Erk activation in mediating differential regulation of cell cycle by Pyk2 and FAK. A role for Erk and JNK pathways in mediating the cell cycle regulation by FAK and Pyk2 was also confirmed by using chemical inhibitors for these pathways. Finally, we showed that while FAK and PFhy1 were present in focal contacts, Pyk2 and FPhy2 were localized in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, both Pyk2 and FPhy2 (to a greater extent) were tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with Src and Fyn. This suggested that they may inhibit Erk activation in an analogous manner as the mislocalized FAK mutant (&Dgr;)C14 described previously by competing with endogenous FAK for binding signaling molecules such as Src and Fyn. This model is further supported by an inhibition of endogenous FAK association with active Src by Pyk2 and FPhy2 and a partial rescue by FAK of Pyk2-mediated cell cycle inhibition.

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