The effects on lipid and apolipoprotein serum levels of long-term carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenobarbital therapy in children with epilepsy

J Eirís, M I Novo-Rodríguez, M Del Río, P Meseguer, M C Del Río, M Castro-Gago
Epilepsy Research 2000, 41 (1): 1-7
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of long-term carbamazepine (CBZ), valproic acid (VPA) and phenobarbital (PB) treatment on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in epileptic children. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were measured and the LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were calculated in 320 children and adolescents (129 receiving CBZ, 127 receiving VPA and 64 receiving PB) suffering from various types of epilepsy. Additionally, in a subgroup of 181 children (68 CBZ; 78 VPA; 35 PB) apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), HDL2-C and HDL3-C were measured and apoA-I/apoB and HDL2-C/HDL3-C ratios were calculated. Results of the measurements were compared with those of 169 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. None of the variables considered was significantly correlated with time elapsed since start of treatment or with drug concentration in serum. TC and LDL-C serum levels were high in children receiving CBZ or PB and low in those treated with VPA. Serum LDL-C level exceeded 130 mg/dl in 27.9% of CBZ-group, 31.8% of the subjects receiving PB, but only in 7% of those receiving VPA and in 11.8% of control group subjects. CBZ-treated children also showed high HDL-C and HDL3-C values. In the group receiving VPA, HDL2-C, HDL2-C/HDL3-C ratio and apo B were significantly lower than in the control group. Mean apoA-I levels were low in all treated groups: by contrast, in neither group did TGs, VLDL-C levels and TC/HDL-C or LDL-C/HDL-C ratios differ significantly from the corresponding control group. Our results suggest that the effects of long-term AED therapy on lipid profile and, particularly, on apolipoprotein serum levels increase risk of atherosclerosis-related disease. Moreover, these results confirm our previously reported increased risk in CBZ and PB-treated patients.

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