Th2 cell membrane factors in association with IL-4 enhance matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) while decreasing MMP-9 production by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated human monocytes

C Chizzolini, R Rezzonico, C De Luca, D Burger, J M Dayer
Journal of Immunology 2000 June 1, 164 (11): 5952-60
Monocytes/macrophages are directly involved in tissue remodeling and tissue destruction through the release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). In the present study, we examined the effect mediated by contact of polarized Th cells with mononuclear phagocytes on the production of MMP-1, MMP-9, and their inhibitor. Plasma cell membranes from Ag-activated Th1 and Th2 cells were potent inducers of MMP-1 production by THP-1 cells. Cell membrane-associated TNF was found to be only partially involved in MMP-1 induction by both Th1 and Th2 cells. In Th2 cells exclusively, membrane-associated IL-4 induced MMP-1 production by THP-1 cells. This membrane-associated IL-4 effect was additive to that of TNF and was specifically observed on MMP-1 as MMP-9 production was concomitantly inhibited. Similarly, soluble IL-4 induced THP-1 cells to produce MMP-1, its effect proving additive to that of soluble TNF and to that of cell membranes of mitogen-activated HUT-78 cells. Its activity was blocked by IL-4 neutralization, and was unaffected by the presence of indomethacin. These effects on THP-1 cells were observed at protein and mRNA levels. Although inhibitory on freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes, soluble IL-4 enhanced T cell-induced MMP-1 and inhibited MMP-9 production both at protein and mRNA levels in monocytes cultured for 7 days in the presence of GM-CSF. Thus, in contrast with previously reported effects, Th2 and IL-4 specifically induce MMP-1 production by mononuclear phagocytes at various stages of differentiation. This IL-4 activity may be relevant to pathological conditions dominated by Th2 inflammatory responses, resulting in tissue remodeling and destruction.

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