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Kidney stones as a manifestation of hypercalcemic disorders. Hyperparathyroidism and sarcoidosis.

When hypercalcemia is detected in a kidney stone formation, an intact parathyroid hormone measurement should be made. Detection of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is important to prevent further stone episodes and to avoid the complications of high serum calcium in other organ systems. Stones in patients with HPT often contain apatite salts in addition to calcium oxalate because parathyroid excess may create a renal tubular acidosis. The calculi seen in patients with sarcoidosis, another hypercalcemic state that may cause stone formation, however, are usually pure calcium oxalate. Excess generation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D results in intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium and secondary hyperoxaluria.

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