JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Failure of percutaneous catheter drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst.

American Surgeon 2000 March
Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts under CT radiologic guidance is a valuable adjunct or alternative to operative pseudocyst management. PCD failure is characterized by the development of recurrent pseudocysts or external pancreatic fistulas. The purpose of this study is to define the cause and management of PCD failure patients. A retrospective review and analysis of patients with symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts managed with PCD who required subsequent operative treatment because of PCD failure was undertaken. There were 23 study patients (18 men, 5 women) with a mean age of 44 years identified over a 13-year time period. Pancreatitis etiology was alcohol abuse in 10, gallstones in 7, pancreas divisum in 3, trauma in 2, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in 1. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings were: 13 genu strictures, 4 main pancreatic duct dilations, 2 head strictures, 1 body stricture, 1 stricture in the tail, 1 intact duct, and 1 unknown. Operations used to manage PCD failures were: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ) in 9 patients, Roux-en-Y pancreatic fistula jejunostomy in 7, distal pancreatectomy in 3, caudal pancreatectomy in 2, pancreatoduodenectomy in 1, cyst gastrotomy in 1, and caudal pancreatojejunostomy in 1. Follow-up has ranged from 1 to 13 years (mean, 5 years). Five patients who underwent pancreatic fistula jejunostomy developed recurrent pseudocysts or pancreatitis. There have been no recurrent pseudocysts or fistulas in patients managed with LPJ or pancreatic resection. Genu strictures were the cause of PCD failure in the majority of patients. LPJ is the treatment of choice for genu strictures but may not always be possible because of chronic inflammatory changes. Roux-en-Y pancreatic fistula jejunostomy is an acceptable alternative. Recurrent pseudocysts in the head and body are treated with LPJ with cyst incorporation. Pancreatic resection is appropriate for certain strictures of the head, body, and pancreatic tail. Failure of PCD is associated with an underlying ductal disorder that needs to be defined preoperatively with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to select the appropriate operation.

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