COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Patient-controlled epidural analgesia with morphine or morphine plus ketamine for post-operative pain relief

P H Tan, M C Kuo, P F Kao, Y Y Chia, K Liu
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 1999, 16 (12): 820-5
10747210
Sixty patients were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Group I received epidural morphine 1 mg after surgery and used a patient-controlled analgesia device programmed to deliver morphine 0. 2 mg h-1, 0.2 mg per bolus. Group II received an epidural loading dose of morphine 1 mg plus ketamine 5 mg and used a patient-controlled analgesia device programmed to deliver morphine 0. 2 mg+ketamine 0.5 mg h-1, morphine 0.2 mg+ketamine 0.5 mg per bolus with a lockout time of 10 min. The mean morphine consumption was 8. 6+/-0.7 mg for group I and 6.2+/-0.2 mg for group II. Although group II utilized significantly less morphine (P < 0.05), pain relief was significantly better in group II than in group I (P < 0.05) in the first 3 h. Vomiting occurred more frequently in group I (26%) than in group II (13%). The frequency and severity of pruritus and level of sedation were similar in the two groups. These findings suggest that patient-controlled epidural analgesia with morphine plus ketamine may provide effective analgesia with a lesser dose of morphine and fewer subsequent side effects, compared with patient-controlled epidural analgesia with morphine alone after lower abdominal surgery.

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