Risk factors for postcesarean surgical site infection

T S Tran, S Jamulitrat, V Chongsuvivatwong, A Geater
Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000, 95 (3): 367-71

OBJECTIVE: To determine postcesarean complications and identify independent risk factors for surgical site infection.

METHODS: We studied a cohort of 969 women delivered by cesarean between May and August 1997. Infections were determined by examinations during ward rounds, reviews of laboratory results, and follow-up for 30 days after discharge. Risk factors were identified by multiple logistic regression.

RESULTS: Surgical complications were rare. There were febrile morbidity and infection complications in 16.2% and 12.4% of subjects, respectively. Eighty-five subjects had 95 surgical site infections (9.8%), and seven risk factors were independently associated with infection. Risk factors included preoperative remote infection (adjusted odd ratio [OR] 16.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1, 128.3); chorioamnionitis (OR 10.6, 95% CI 2.1, 54.2); maternal preoperative condition (OR 5.3 for those with severe systemic disease [American Society of Anesthesiologists score > or =31, 95% CI 1.2, 24.0); preeclampsia (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1, 4.9); higher body mass index (OR 2.0 for every five-unit increment, 95% CI 1.3, 3.0); nulliparity (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2); and increased surgical blood loss (OR 1.3 for every 100-mL increment, 95% CI 1.1, 1.5).

CONCLUSION: Host susceptibility and existing infections were important predictors of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Further intervention should target this high-risk group to reduce the clinical effect of surgical site infection.

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