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Hip Fractures: I. Overview and Evaluation and Treatment of Femoral-Neck Fractures.

Hip fractures remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, and their incidence is increasing as the population ages. Surgical management followed by early mobilization is the treatment of choice for most patients with hip fractures. However, all comorbid medical conditions, particularly cardiopulmonary and fluid- electrolyte imbalances, must be evaluated and stabilized prior to operative intervention. Nondisplaced femoral-neck fractures should be stabilized with multiple parallel lag screws or pins. The treatment of displaced femoral-neck fractures is based on the patient's age and activity level: young active patients should undergo open reduction and internal fixation; older, less active patients are usually treated with hemiarthroplasty, either uncemented or cemented. Regardless of treatment method, the goal is to return the patient to his or her prefracture level of function.

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